The fresh Kangbuk Samsung Health Research is actually good cohort examination of Korean individuals, old ?18 decades, just who undergone a thorough annual otherwise biennial wellness test at Kangbuk Samsung Medical Overall Medical care Centers in Seoul and Suwon, Southern area Korea. twelve Extremely examinees (>80%) try employees of various enterprises and you may local political organizations and their spouses. Into the Southern area Korea, the fresh new Commercial Safe practices Rules demands yearly otherwise biennial health tests examinations of the many group, free of charge.
The research is simply for blackdatingforfree support Kangbuk Samsung Fitness Investigation people which underwent an extensive health examination out-of , and you may considering told concur to own linkage to your Medical health insurance Review and you may Evaluation Service databases (n=263 532; Shape step 1). Within the Korea, healthcare is structured less than a mandatory single?payer nationwide insurance rates program (Federal Medical health insurance) that gathers all the details about scientific attributes explore since the entire Korean inhabitants less than an intensive database work by Medical insurance Feedback and Analysis Services. thirteen
We excluded participants with missing data on BP or history of hypertension (n=1018), with history of malignancy (n=6255), with history of CVD (n=3440), or with a diagnosis of CVD (n=10 471) at baseline. Because some participants met >1 exclusion criterion, the final sample size included in the analysis was 244 837 participants (mean [SD] age, 39.0 [8.9] years; interquartile range, 32.2–43.7 years; and young adults aged <40 years of 60.7 %).
Written told agree is taken from all of the professionals. The analysis try authorized by the Institutional Opinion Panel of Kangbuk Samsung Medical.
Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, medical history, and family history of CVD were collected by standardized, self?administered questionnaires. 14 Smoking status was categorized as never, former, and current smoker. Alcohol intake was categorized as <20 and ?20 g/d, as applied in previous studies. 12 , 15 Education level was categorized as less than college and college education or more. Physical activity was assessed using the validated Korean version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form. 16 Participants were classified as inactive, minimally active, and health?enhancing physically active. Health?enhancing physically active was defined as physical activity that meets either of 2 criteria: (1) vigorous?intensity activity on ?3 days per week, accumulating ?1500 metabolic equivalent min/wk; or (2) 7 days of any combination of walking, moderate?intensity activities, or vigorous?intensity activities achieving at least 3000 metabolic equivalent min/wk. 16 Usual dietary intake was assessed using a 103?item, self?administered food frequency questionnaire designed and validated for use in Korea. 17 Daily intake of sodium was calculated by multiplying the frequency of consumption of each food by the portion size and sodium content of each food and summing across all relevant food items. 18 , 19
Height and weight were measured by trained nurses. Body mass index was calculated as weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters squared). BP was measured using an automated oscillometric device (53000; Welch Allyn, New York, NY) by trained nurses while participants were in a sitting position, with the arm supported at the heart level after a 5?minute rest. We recoded 3 consecutive BP readings and used the average of the second and third readings in the analysis. BP levels were categorized according to the 2017 ACC/AHA hypertension guideline. 11 Participants without a history of hypertension were categorized as normal BP (< mm Hg), elevated BP (120–129/<80 mm Hg), stage 1 hypertension (130––89 mm Hg), and stage 2 hypertension (? mm Hg). Participants with a history of hypertension were categorized as treated and strictly controlled hypertension (< mm Hg on antihypertensive medication use), treated and controlled hypertension (130––89 mm Hg on antihypertensive medication use), treated but uncontrolled hypertension (? mm Hg on antihypertensive medication use), and untreated hypertension (not using antihypertensive medications).